This book takes stock of the past two decades of public sector modernisation in OECD countries. These years have witnessed an influx of new ideas and initiatives but how have these new ideas worked in practice? This report assesses failures and successes and identifies the challenges ahead. It examines certain selected key public management policy levers of reform such as: - Making government more responsive, transparent and accessible- Instilling a performance approach in the public sector- Changing accountability and control systems- Facilitating reallocation and restructuring- Organising and motivating public servants, and- Integrating a market approach.This report aims to help policy makers equip themselves for the future. It will be of great interest to all those involved with public management policy.